25 Vials $109
Organ or System Involved
Location & Role
BB1 Acetylcholine/Ach neurotransmitter at all nerve-muscle junctions as well as many other sites in the nervous system; contraction of skeletal muscles, control of sweat glands and heart beat; transmits messages between neurons in the brain and spinal cord. myasthenia gravis and Alzheimer’s disease
BB2 Angiotensin I protein converted by angiotensin converting enzyme into angiotensin II ACE inhibitor drugs work by reducing the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
BB3 Angiotensin II neuropeptide produced from renin released by kidneys; stimulates thirst; promotes release of aldosterone, which increases the rate of salt and water re-absorption from the kidneys; vasoconstriction of aerioles to increase blood pressure ACE inhibitor drugs work by reducing the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II
BB4 Bilirubin metabolic waste product yellow pigment that is one of the end products of hemoglobin breakdown in the liver, spleen and bone marrow and is excreted as a waste material in the bile; associated with jaundice products formed from the breakdown of bilirubin are responsible for the brown colour of stools
BB5 Bombesin peptide stimulates release of gastric and pancreatic hormones; contraction of the smooth muscles in gastric and urinary tract, and in the uterus; can inhibit the secretion of growth hormone; itching and lowered body temperature
BB6 Cathepsin C enzyme found in skin and bone cells, activates several of the chemicals controlling local immune and inflammatory responses; gum health; Papillon-Lefèvre syndrome (warty thickened skin, principally on hands and soles of feet; periodontitis and gingivitis)
BB7 Cholesterol lipid from food and also synthesized in liver; most abundant steroid in animal tissue; synthesis of steroid hormones and bile salts; stabilizing cell membranes
BB8 Complement C7 protein in blood; part of non-specific resistance and immunity; enhance allergic and inflammatory reactions; with other complement proteins forms large holes in the microbe, allowing fluid to flow in and the microbe then bursts one of at least 20 different proteins
BB9 C-reactive protein protein elevated levels indicate an increased risk of heart attack and stroke in the future; necessary for acute stage of inflammation but inappropriate for chronic stage; effective against bacteria, parasites and immune complexes; synthesized by liver
BB10 Cyclic Adenosine-3’,5’ – monophospate/ Cyclic AMP formed from ATP by action of adenylate cyclase5; serves as second messenger for some hormones; increase in cAMP causes adipose cells to break down triglycerides and release fatty acids more rapidly; stimulates thyroid cells to secrete more thyroid hormone
BB11 Cyclic Guanosine-3’,5’ – monophospate/Cyclic GMP mediation of certain hormones and neurotransmitters such as acetylcholine, prostaglandins and histamine; involved in light/dark adaptation of the eye
BB12 Dopamine/Da neurotransmitter in parts of the brain that control subconscious movement of skeletal muscles; regulating muscle tone; increases the efficiency of the heartbeat and helps return the blood pressure to normal; involved in emotional responses decreased levels associated with Parkinson’s disease; may be involved with schizophrenia, ADD, autism, and La Tourette's syndrome
BB13 Dynorphin A neuropeptide in brain and small intestine; may be related to controlling pain and registering emotions
BB14 b- Endorphin
(Beta Endorphin)
neuropeptide in brain, spinal cord, pancreas and testes; control of sensitivity to pain by inhibiting substance P; control of body’s response to stress; regulation of contraction of intestinal wall; affects mood; may also regulate the release of hormones from the pituitary gland; may have a role in memory and learning, sexual activity and control of body temperature morphine has a similar chemical structure; linked to depression and schizophrenia
BB15 Histamine biogenic amine in cells, mainly mast cells throughout the body, released during an allergic reaction and inflammation; narrows bronchi in lungs, increases permeability of blood vessels, lowers blood pressure, causes itching and stimulates production of acid in the stomach; secretion of digestive juices; Carl Pfeiffer has suggested too much histamine is involved in some forms of alcoholism May be implicated in some types of schizophrenia
BB16 Hyaluronic Acid combination of polysaccarides and proteins extra-cellular, viscous material that binds cells together, lubricates joints and maintains shape of the eye ball; may help phagocytes migrate through connective tissue during development and wound healing co-factors are N-acetyl glucosamine and glucuronic acid
BB17 Hydrochloric Acid acid produced by gastric glands in the stomach to aid protein digestion by preparing proteins for the later stages of digestion; also prevents bacterial growth in the stomach excessive acid production may be stimulated by stress or tobacco smoking
BB18 Interferon/
Intron A
protein fight infection; made by certain white blood cells; naturally produced by virus-infected host cells that induce unaffected cells to synthesize antiviral proteins and so stops many viruses from replicating within body cells have been used to treat cancer, immunodeficiency disorders, chronic infection with hepatitis B & C and chronic genital herpes; 2 other types – beta and gamma;
BB19 Myoglobin protein found only in muscle fibres; binds oxygen molecules that are needed for ATP production within mitochondria
BB20 Pyruvic Acid carbohydrate a by-product of glycolysis (production of ATP from glucose); may be converted into lactic acid, alanine or oxaloacetic acid
BB21 Serotonin/5-Ht neurotransmitter in parts of the brain, blood platelets, lining of digestive tract; concerned with conscious processes, involved in controlling states of consciousness and mood; sensory perception; temperature regulation; released at site of bleeding to constrict small blood vessels and control blood loss; inhibits gastric secretion and stimulates smooth muscles in the intestinal wall; inducing sleep; inhibits release of prolactin; decreases carbohydrate cravings; provides a feeling of fullness; enhances mood action in brain disrupted by some hallucinogenic drugs, particularly LSD; excess serotonin implicated in Raynaud’s disease
BB22 Serum Amyloid P Component protein accumulates in extra-cellular spaces of many organs in association with different disease processes; inhibits elastase (enzyme concerned with breakdown of protein); necessary for acute stage of inflammation but inappropriate for chronic stage; removes cholesterol and lipid debris from areas of trauma; causes thickening of connective tissue implicated in Alzheimer’s disease
BB23 Substance P neuropeptide in sensory nerves, spinal cord and parts of brain associated with pain – enhances perception of pain; stimulates motility of the intestines; stimulates saliva production and inflammatory responses in tissues endorphins inhibit Substance P; counters the effect of certain nerve-damaging chemicals, so may prove useful as treatment for nerve degeneration
BB24 Transferrin protein in blood, transports iron; inhibits the growth of certain bacteria by reducing the amount of available iron.
BB25 Urea waste product waste product of the breakdown of proteins; the main nitrogenous constituent of urine; formed in the body from the break down of cell proteins used in some creams and ointments to moisturise and soften the skin
25 Vials $109
Organ or System Involved
Location & Role
BB26 Acetone /Dimethyl ketone /2-propanone /Beta-ketopropane produced primarily during excessive fat metabolism, although some levels present in virtually every organ and tissue, and the blood contains some acetone occurs naturally in plants, trees, volcanic gases and forest fires. Present in vehicle exhaust, tobacco smoke, and landfill sites; also manufactured and used widely in industry as a solvent in paints and lacquers and for cellulose plastics
BB27 Adenosine neurotransmitter affects central nervous system and peripheral nervous system; constituent of ATP and ADP may be involved with asthma; stimulatory effect of tea and coffee because inhibit adenosine
BB28 Adenylate Cyclase enzyme converts ATP into cAMP2 within the cell
BB29 Albumin/Albumen protein produced by liver; most abundant (54%) and smallest of plasma proteins; regulates osmotic pressure of plasma and therefore fluid retention; carrier for metals, ions, fatty acids, amino acids, bilirubin2, enzymes and drugs – prevents them being filtered out by the kidneys and excreted in urine
BB30 Antithrombin III anti-coagulant blocks action of clotting agents (factors XII, XI, IX, X and II)
BB31 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide /ANP/Atriopeptin hormone produced in upper chambers of heart; increases excretion of sodium in urine; increases urine output and decreases blood volume; causes blood vessels to dilate; inhibits aldosterone1 production and lowers blood pressure children with congenital heart disease have high levels of ANP
BB32 Calcitriol hormone aids in absorption of dietary calcium and phosphorus; secreted by kidneys; it is the active hormonal form of vitamin D
BB33 Cortisol/Hydrocortisone hormone the principal glucocorticoid1; increases blood glucose levels by increasing cellular utilization of proteins and fats as energy sources thus conserving glucose; stimulates liver cells to produce glucose from amino acids and fats; secretion controlled by ACTH1 from anterior pituitary; counteracts the inflammatory response also used as a drug for inflammatory or allergic conditions
BB34 Endothelin-1 found in brain, intestines, kidneys and heart; most potent vasoconstrictor known; regulates salt transport in intestine may be implicated in migraine; increased levels in diabetic and non-diabetic coronary artery disease; increased levels in micro-vascular angina
BB35 ß-Estradiol/17ß-Estradiol hormone synthesized from cholesterol in ovaries; predominant oestrogen hormone in non-pregnant women; promotes development and maintenance of female reproductive structures; increases protein anabolism; lowers blood cholesterol; moderate levels inhibit release of the hormones GnRH, FSH1 and LH1
BB36 Estriol hormone one of the oestrogen hormones; promotes development and maintenance of female reproductive structures; increases protein anabolism; lowers blood cholesterol; moderate levels inhibit release of the hormones GnRH, FSH1 and LH1
BB37 Estrone hormone one of the oestrogen hormones; promotes development and maintenance of female reproductive structures; increases protein anabolism; lowers blood cholesterol; moderate levels inhibit release of the hormones GnRH, FSH1 and LH1
BB38 Gamma-aminobutyrate acid/GABA amino acid and neurotransmitter most widely distributed inhibitory neurotransmitter; blocks noradrenaline1 and dopamine2 deficiencies found in hypertension and seizures; a target for anti-anxiety drugs
BB39 Gamma Globulin protein approximately 38% of blood plasma proteins; carrier for antibodies and so has a role in infection and allergies given as an injection to prevent viral hepatitis
BB40 Glucagon hormone raises blood sugar levels by accelerating breakdown of glycogen into glucose in the liver, converting other nutrients into glucose in the liver, and releasing glucose into the blood – opposes the action of insulin1; may stimulate the secretion of water and electrolytes by the mucosa of small intestine given by injection in the emergency treatment of people with diabetes mellitus who are unconscious as a result of hypoglycaemia
BB41 Glutamic Acid/ Glutamate amino acid and neurotransmitter can be manufactured by the body; precursor of proline, ornithine3, arginine3 and polyamines; a stimulatory neurotransmitter; can be converted in body into GABA; nearly all excitatory neurons in the CNS and possibly half of the synapses in the brain communicate via glutamate; visual adaptation to light and dark many epileptics have increased levels of glutamic acid; part of the acute reaction to withdrawal from drug addiction includes increase production of glutamate
BB42 Glycine Amino acid and neurotransmitter can be synthesized from other amino acids (serine and threonine3); acts as an inhibitory neurotransmitter; assists in manufacture of DNA, glycerol, phospholipids, collagen, glutathione3 and cholesterol2 conjugates; essential for one of key liver detoxification pathways; stimulates secretion of glucagons; in spinal cord (inhibitory action) and in retina Parkinson’s disease; low levels often found in manic-depressives and epileptics; people with motor neurone disease may have impaired glycine metabolism
BB43 Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRP) hormone secreted by hypothalamus; stimulates release of LH1 and FSH1
BB44 Leptin hormone released by fat cells as they synthesize triglycerides; reduces appetite; ; believed to inhibit neuropeptide Y; role in central control of bone mass and so possibly osteoporosis; onset of puberty; believed to have an immune system role through support of helper T cells
BB45 Neuropeptide Y peptide present in many parts of the brain and autonomic nervous system; enhances effect of norepinephrine1; stimulates appetite; causes increased storage of ingested food as fat; regulation of circadian rhythms, sexual functioning, anxiety and stress response, peripheral vascular resistance and contractility of heart; reduces energy expenditure: high circulating levels with severe exercise
BB46 Neurotensin neuropeptide release stimulated by fatty acids; inhibits gastrointestinal motility and increases ileal blood flow; regulation of LH1 and prolactin1; blocks stimulation of acid and pepsin by the vagus nerve
BB47 Somatostatin hormone
BB47a Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase / PTP1B protein inhibits signaling of leptin and insulin1; may explain resistance to leptin and insulin
BB48 Thyroxine/
Tetraiodothyronine T4/
hormone converted into T31; growth and normal development; increase rate at which cells release energy from carbohydrates; enhance protein synthesis; stimulate nervous system
BB49 3,3’,5’-Triiodothyronine/ Reverse T3 hormone Reverse T3 and T31 are secreted in an inverse relationship allowing the thyroid to adjust the amount of thyroid activity; blocks the action of T31 by binding with the receptor sites
BB50 Val-Pro- Asp-Pro-Arg peptide appetite suppressant in rats
25 Vials $109
Organ or System Involved
Location & Role
BB51 n-Acetyl-D-Glucosamine builds and maintains the matrix of collagen6 and connective tissue that forms the ground substance of cartilage inflammatory bowel disease; Crohn’s disease
BB52 Anandamide pain control; may be used by the brain as a central fine-tuner of electrical activity; inhibits movement; involved with mood; short-term memory; male fertility (high levels slow speed of sperm); acts as a chemical messenger between the embryo and uterus during implantation of the embryo in the uterine wall; may control coughing and various respiratory functions; may increase appetite also known as “the bliss molecule” (ananda is Sanskrit for bliss) and the body’s own cannabis (cannabis binds to the same receptors as anandamide); chocolate contains anandamide; may be involved in crohn’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, drug addiction, schizophrenia, autism and Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome
BB53 Collagen Type I 90% of the collagen in human body; present in bone, skin (associated with type III collagen6) and tendons in foetal and diseased tissue, type I collagen has been reported as having a different structure
BB54 Collagen Type II 30% of hyaline and elastic cartilage is composed of type II collagen; present in inter-vertebral discs and the vitreous body of the eye
BB55 Collagen Type III the major collagen found in skin, blood vessels and internal organs such as the smooth muscle layers of the gastrointestinal tract
BB56 Collagen Type V a minor collagen as it is present in less than 10% of the total collagen in any tissue; usually found with type I6 collagen and type III6 collagen in bone, tendon, cornea, skin, blood vessels and lungs; during foetal development, basement membranes originally contain type V collagen before being replaced to type IV collagen
BB57 Complement C3* protein part of non-specific immune response; turned into complement 3b which enhances phagocytosis (ingestion and destruction of cell debris, microbes and other foreign matter) ; most abundant of complement proteins low levels of C3 often seen in gram negative septicemia, shock, lupus, fungal infections and some parasitic infections such as malaria; increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB58 Complement C5a* protein part of non-specific immune response; contributes to the development of inflammation by dilating arterioles and causing release of histamine2 increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB59 Complement Factor B* protein part of non-specific immune response; activates complement C36 and so the immune response increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB60 Complement Factor D* protein part of non-specific immune response; activates complement C36 and so the immune response increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB61 Complement Factor I* protein part of non-specific immune response; recognizes repetitive sugar structures found in cell membranes of bacteria and viruses but not in humans; triggers reactions that activate complement C36 and C5 and so the immune response increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB62 Complement Factor P*/ Properdin protein part of non-specific immune response; activates complement C36 and so the immune response increased complement activity seen in cancer and ulcerative colitis; decreased complement activity in hepatitis and liver cirrhosis
BB63 Elastin protein with fibrillin forms elastic fibres which are strong but can be stretched up to 150% of their relaxed length without breaking; form a network within tissues particularly skin, blood vessel walls and lung tissue with age thickens, fragments and acquires an affinity for calcium so may also be associated with development of atherosclerosis
BB64 Erythropoietin/EPO hormone produced by kidneys; formed from a plasma protein, stimulates red blood production increased blood levels in anaemia
BB65 Exendin (9-39) peptide reduces glucose levels; competes for the same brain receptors as GLP16 and so blocks the effect of GLP1 and stimulates appetite has been shown to acutely increase food intake and promote weight gain in long-term rodent studies; influence on type 2 diabetes
BB66 Glucagon-Like Peptide 1/ GLP1 hormone produced in intestinal endocrine cells; stimulates production of insulin1; inhibits production of glucagon3 and gastric emptying; reduces appetite; lowers blood glucose in people with diabetes biological activity is arrested by Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV6
BB67 Glucosamine-6-phosphate the form that occurs in the body; “glues” structures together; forms an integral part of cell membranes; influences cell to cell communication; important for joint surfaces, tendons, ligaments, synovial fluid, skin, bone, nails and mucus secretions of the digestive,respiratory and urinary tracts important in osteorathritis and cartilage health generally; the supplement glucosamine sulphate may be used when the body is short of this
BB68 Glutathione Peroxidase enzyme involved in conversion of hydrogen peroxide7 within the body; protection against free radical damage; reduces the production of inflammatory prostaglandins and leukotrienes children with asthma have significantly reduced blood levels; may be involved in schizophrenia; levels reduced if selenium deficiency
Code Name Type Location And Role Comments
BB69 Nociceptin/ peptide present in many areas of the CNS; believed to play a role in pain transmission; amplifies pain and enhances harmless stimuli into painful sensations
Orphanin FQ2
BB70 Nocistatin peptide counteracts the effect of nociceptin6
BB71 Orexin B neuropeptide generated when blood sugar levels drop, so acting as a trigger to eat people who over-eat may possibly produce too much orexin; lack of orexin has been linked to narcolepsy (sleep disorder characterized by sudden sleeping)
BB72 Phosphatidyl-inositol important component of biological membranes; supervises division of cells and metabolism in some skincare products and lipsticks
BB73 Superoxide Dismutase/SOD enzyme antioxidant produced naturally in the body; combats the damage to cells caused by the superoxide radical supplementation of SOD has been shown to exert strong regenerative effects on tissues that have become hardened or fibrotic because of age, disease, or injury; may be anti-ageing
BB74 Tumour necrosis factor alpha protein produced by macrophages, which engulf and destroy bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances; role in regulating inflammatory and immune responses throughout the body and particularly in relation to some parasites asthma, eczema, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, AIDS, multiple sclerosis, cancer; may be involved in septicaemia, and the weight loss associated with parasitic infection or cancer
BB75 Ubiquitin/ APF-1 essential for protein degradation and cell cycling; DNA repair; cellular stress responses; various enzymes attach ubiquitin to body proteins; these enzymes are known as ubiquitin ligases.; when a protein bears many ubiquitin molecules, it is targeted for degradation by the proteasome, a huge enzyme complex; when few ubiquitins are attached, they may serve structural, regulatory, or trafficking functions
25 Vials $109
Organ or System Involved
Location & Role
BB76 Acetyl Coenzyme A synthesized in the mitochondria of all cells and is used to generate ATP in the Krebs cycle; involved in the synthesis of Ach2 in some nerve cells
BB77 Actin Protein in order for muscle to contract myosin7 and actin must interact; actin-myosin interaction activates actomyosin ATPase which extracts energy from ATP for contraction.
BB78 Adenine one of the bases of DNA & RNA
BB79a Calcineurin speeds up the rate at which electrical signals in the brain die away, so affects long-term memory may have a role in dementia; post-traumatic stress syndrome and heart failure
BB80 Calmodulin/ modulator protein/ (CaM)/ Phosphodiesterase 3’:5’- Cyclic Nucleotide Activator protein calcium-binding protein found within cells; many different biochemical processes known to be regulated by calmodulin, although the interactions of calmodulin with its various target enzymes are only poorly understood; has a regulatory effect on contraction and relaxation of smooth muscles; involved in gene regulation, protein synthesis, inflammation, short term memory, the immune response, viral penetration, and the cell cycle implicating it in AIDs, Alzheimer’s, certain cancers and other diseases
BB81 Carbonic Anhydrase enzyme present in red blood cells and kidney cells; controls the elimination of carbon dioxide from the body and the pH of urine; facilitates the transfer of carbon dioxide from the tissues to the blood and from the blood to the alveoli (air sacs) of the lungs; involved in production of gastric acid
BB82 Catalase enzyme the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide8 into water and oxygen.
BB83 Cytosine one of the bases of DNA & RNA
BB84 Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV arrests biological activity of GLP16 and Substance P2
BB85 Fibrin protein insoluble; essential to blood clotting; formed from fibrinogen7 by the action of thrombin7
BB86 Fibrinogen protein a clotting factor in blood plasma that is converted to fibrin7; produced by liver and plasma cells; approximately 7% of blood plasma proteins
BB87 Glycogen carbohydrate the principal carbohydrate storage material in the body; plays an important role in controlling blood sugar levels.
BB88 Glycogen Phosphorylase a enzyme involved in converting glycogen7 to glucose
BB89 Glycogen Synthase enzyme involved in converting glucose to glycogen7
BB90 Guanine one of the basis of DNA & RNA
BB91 Homocysteine amino acid formed from the breakdown of methionine; should exist only briefly before being broken down into cystathione and then cysteine; if does not happen efficiently then raised blood levels of homocysteine can occur linked to atherosclerosis; and Alzheimer’s disease; homozygous homocysteine (rare condition)
BB92 Keratin protein produced in the skin epidermis; helps protect skin and underlying tissues from heat, microbes and chemicals
BB93 Leucine Enkephalin neuropeptide produced in the adrenal medulla; inhibits pain impulses by suppressing release of Substance P2; increased secretion into the blood stream when stressed morphine stimulates enkephalin receptors
BB94 Methionine Enkephalin neuropeptide produced in the adrenal medulla; sedative effect; inhibits pain impulses by suppressing release of Substance P2; increased secretion into the blood stream when stressed in alcohol- and cocaine-pre­ferring mouse strains, methionine enkephalin is lower in the hypothala­mus; morphine stimulates enkephalin receptors
BB95 Myosin protein in order for muscle to contract, myosin and actin7 must interact
BB96 Prothrombin/ body protein inactive protein synthesized by the liver, released into the blood, and converted to active thrombin7 in the process of blood clotting
Factor II
BB97 Terminal Transferase enzyme a DNA polymerase that does not require a primer; catalyses the addition of nucleotides to DNA (involved in cell division)
BB98 Thrombin enzyme active enzyme produced from prothrombin7; acts to covert fibrinogen7 to fibrin7
BB99 Thymine one of the DNA bases
BB100 Uracil one of the bases of RNA
25 Vials $109
Organ or System Involved
Location & Role
BB101 Aldolase enzyme involved in 4th step in process of glycolysis
BB102 CART/ Cocaine- and Amphetamine Related Transcript neuropeptide modulates the action of leptin5 and neuropeptide Y5 and so reduces appetite; cocaine and amphetamines stimulate its production
BB103 Elastase digestive enzyme pancreas, activated from proelastase by trypsin4; turns peptides into proteins
BB104 Enolase enzyme involved in 9th step in process of glycolysis
BB105 Galanin neuropeptide inhibits release of acetylcholine2 and glutamic acid5; decreases excitability of spinal neurons; stimulates the appetite may be involved in Alzheimer’s disease
BB106 Ghrelin hormone increases appetite; may be a hormonal link between stomach, hypothalamus and pituitary and so regulate energy balance; regulates growth hormone secretions; may signal to the hypothalamus when an increase in metabolic efficiency is necessary blood levels are elevated in anorexics and return to normal after partial weight recovery
BB107 Glyceraldehyde-3-Phosphate Dehydrogenase enzyme involved in 6th step in process of glycolysis
BB108 Hexocinase enzyme involved in 1st step in process of glycolysis
BB109 Melatonin hormone secreted by pineal gland; may inhibit reproductive activities and promote sleep; regulation of body’s biological clock
BB110 Neuromedin B neuropeptide present in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract; binds to corticotropin releasing factor receptors; involved in smooth muscle contraction, blood pressure, blood glucose, body temperature and cell growth; suppresses the appetite
BB111 2-Phenylethylamine/ PEA/ ?-Phenethylamine neuro-hormone chemical which plays a critical role in the limbic system known to give a feeling of bliss 60% of depressed patients have a PEA deficit; a natural ingredient in chocolate; MAOI anti-depressants increase concentrations of this in the brain
BB112 Phosphoglucose Isomerase enzyme involved in 2nd step in process of glycolysis
BB113 Phospho-Fructokinase enzyme involved in 3rd step in process of glycolysis
BB114 Prostaglandin A1/ relaxes the muscles in the walls of blood vessels, acting as powerful vasodilators and so lowering blood pressure may protect against peptic ulcers
BB115 Prostaglandin D2/ stimulates inflammation
BB116 Prostaglandin E1/ dilates blood vessels and so reduces blood pressure seems to be elevated in manic-depressive disorders; used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction in men
BB117 Prostaglandin E2/ promotes platelet adhesiveness; promotes sodium retention; promotes inflammation; widens airways; stimulates contraction of uterus; protects against peptic ulcers; acts on adenylate cyclase5 to enhance the production of cyclic AMP2 used as a treatment for erectile dysfunction in men
BB118 Prostaglandin F2/ PGF2 stimulates contraction of uterus; narrows airways
BB119 Prostaglandin I2/ PGI2 reduces platelet stickiness women who develop pre-eclampsia have low levels of this
BB120 Purine used in the process producing proteins; converts the energy produced by the oxidation of food molecules to a form which the cell can use to satisfy its energy needs; involved in nerve conduction and muscle contraction; rids cells of excess nitrogen; protects the cell from cancer-causing agents increased levels raise the levels of uric acid in the blood and cause gout
BB121 Pyruvate Kinase enzyme involved in 10th step in process of glycolysis
BB122 Serine amino acid can be made in human body from glycine5; used to make substances such as choline, phospholids, phosphotidylserine; present in all cell membranes ; plays a key role in membrane stability
BB123 Triosephosphate Isomerase enzyme involved in 5th step in process of glycolysis
BB124 Uric Acid waste product of the breakdown of nucleic acid in cells; formed primarily in the liver and excreted by the kidney into the urine over-production leads to uric acid crystal deposits in the joints (gout); low levels in people with multiple sclerosis
BB125 Urocortin neuropeptide inhibits appetite
Go Back To Test Kit List
Body Biochemicals Kit NUMBER 6 Test Kit
25 vials, $109
The 6th of the Body Biochemical Test Kits, containing more hormones, cytokines, including DHEA, Gastrin, Peptide YY, Fibroblast Growth Factors, etc. 25 vials for AK Practitioners, Bioresonance Practitioners, NAET, etc.

BB 126 Amphiregulin/AREG
A member of the epidermal growth factor family. Interacts with the EGF/TGF-alpha receptor to promote the growth of normal epithelial cells and inhibits the growth of certain aggressive carcinoma cell lines.

BB 127 Androstenedione
A steroid hormone produced in the adrenal glands and the gonads as an intermediate step in the biochemical pathway that produces the testosterone, estrone and estradiol.

BB 128 Dehydroepiandrosterone / DHEA
A steroid hormone; the most abundant circulating steroid in humans, in whom it is produced in the adrenal glands,the gonads, and the brain,where it functions predominantly as a metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of the androgen and oestrogen sex steroids.

BB 129 Epidermal Growth Factor
Stimulates cell growth, proliferation, and differentiation. Can be found in platelets, macrophages, urine, saliva, human milk, and plasma.

BB 130 Fibroblast Growth Factor 1 /FGF-1
Growth factors involved in angiogenesis, wound healing, and embryonic development; promotes endothelial cell proliferation and the physical organization of endothelial cells into tube-like structures; stimulates angiogenesis and the proliferation of fibroblasts that give rise to granulation tissue, which fills up a wound space/cavity early in the wound-healing process. Seems to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and processes attributed to learning and memory, at least in the hippocampus.

BB 131 Fibroblast Growth Factor 2 / FGF-2
Growth factors involved in angiogenesis, wound healing, and embryonic development. Promotes endothelial cell proliferation and the physical organization of endothelial cells into tube-like structures. Stimulate angiogenesis and the proliferation of fibroblasts that give rise to granulation tissue, which fills up a wound space/cavity early in the wound-healing process. Adult neurogenesis within the hippocampus depends greatly on FGF-2. Seems to be involved in the regulation of synaptic plasticity and processes attributed to learning and memory, at least in the hippocampus.

BB 132 Fibroblast Growth Factor 10 / FGF-10
Growth factors involved in angiogenesis, wound healing, and embryonic development.

BB 133 Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 / FGF-23
Main function seems to be regulation of phosphate concentration in plasma. Secreted by osteoblasts and osteoclasts in response to elevated calcitriol. Acts on kidneys, where it decreases the expression of NPT2, a sodium-phosphate cotransporter in the proximal tubule, so decreases the reabsorption and increases excretion of phosphate.

BB 134 Gastrin
A peptide hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid (HCl) by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility.

BB 135 Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor / G-CSF
A glycoprotein, growth factor and cytokine produced by a number of different tissues to stimulate the bone marrow to produce granulocytes and stem cells, and then stimulates the bone marrow to release them into the blood. Also stimulates the survival, proliferation, differentiation, and function of neutrophil precursors and mature neutrophils.

BB 136 Granulocyte Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor / GM-CSF
A protein secreted by macrophages, T cells, mast cells, NK cells, endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Functions as a white blood cell growth factor. Stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes.

BB 137 Growth-Hormone Releasing Hormone / Growth-Hormone-Releasing Factor /GRF/ GHRF / Somatoliberin / Somatocrinin
Stimulates growth hormone secretion; (growth hormone is required for normal postnatal growth, bone growth, regulatory effects on protein, carbohydrate, and lipid metabolism); promotes slow-wave sleep;

BB 138 Insulin-Like Growth Factor 1 / IGF-1/ Somatomedin C
A hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin; plays an important role in childhood growth and continues to have anabolic effects in adults.

BB 139 Insulin-Like Growth Factor 2/ IGF 2
A hormone similar in molecular structure to insulin; has growth-regulating, insulin-like and mitogenic activities; believed to be a major foetal growth factor.

BB 140 Interferon-Gamma
Critical for innate and adaptive immunity against viral and intracellular bacterial infections and for tumor control. An important activator of macrophages. Aberrant IFN-? expression is associated with a number of autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases.

BB 141 Lipopolysaccharide / LPS
Found in the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, act as endotoxins and elicit strong immune responses. Produced by gut bacteria, so source of many inflammatory reactions including autoimmunity.

BB 142 Neuregulin 1 / NRG1
Induce the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, glial, and other types of cells. Essential for the normal development of the nervous system and the heart. Thought to play a role in schizophrenia. Part of the EGF family of proteins.

BB 143 Neuregulin 2 / NRG2
Induces the growth and differentiation of epithelial, neuronal, glial, and other types of cells. Part of the EGF family of proteins.

BB 144 Neuregulin 3 / NRG3
Linked to a susceptibility to schizophrenia and Hirschsprung's disease.Part of the EGF family of proteins.

BB 145 Neuregulin 4 / NRG4
Activates type-1 growth factor receptors to initiate cell-to-cell signaling through tyrosine phosphorylation. Loss of expression of NRG4 is frequently seen in advanced bladder cancer while increased NRG4 expression correlates to better survival.

BB 146 Peptide YY / PYY / Peptide Tyrosine Tyrosine
Released by cells in the ileum and colon in response to eating; appears to reduce appetite (by slowing the gastric emptying) ; inhibits gastric motility and increases water and electrolyte absorption in the colon; increases efficiency of digestion and nutrient absorption after a meal; may also suppress pancreatic secretion.

BB 147 Platelet-Derived Growth Factor / PDGF-R
Plays a significant role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis), the growth of blood vessels from already-existing blood vessel tissue. Uncontrolled angiogenesis is a characteristic of cancer.

BB 148 Pregnenolone
A steroid the body makes as a precursor to other steroid hormones, such as progesterone, DHEA , mineralocorticoids (which regulate electrolyte balance), corticosteroids (which influence inflammation and metabolism), estrogens, and androgens.

BB 149 Transforming Growth Factor-Alpha / TGF Alpha
Seems to play a role in mediation of cell-cell adhesion and in juxtacrine stimulation of adjacent cells. Expression of TGF-alpha is widespread in tumors and transformed cells. TGF-alpha is also expressed in normal tissues during embryogenesis and in adult tissues, including pituitary, brain, keratinocytes and macrophages.

BB 150 Transforming Growth Factor-Beta / TGF-Beta
A protein that controls proliferation, cellular differentiation, and other functions in most cells. A type of cytokine which plays a role in immunity, cancer, bronchial asthma, heart disease, diabetes, Marfan syndrome, Loeys–Dietz syndrome, Parkinson's disease and AIDS.

Body Biochemicals Kit NUMBER 7 Test Kit
25 vials, $109
More Body Biochemicals including some rare, as well as coagulation and lipoproteins.
Plus ATP, Hydrogen Peroxide, Alanine, Proline, Nitric Oxide, Trigycerides and more.

BB 151 Alanine
A non-essential amino acid, high levels linked to high blood pressure. Alterations in the alanine cycle that increase the levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) is linked to the development of type II diabetes. Good sources in the diet include beans, nuts, seeds, soy, whey, brewer’s yeast, brown rice, bran, corn, legumes, whole grains.

BB 152 Amyloid Beta Peptide / Beta Amyloid
The main component of amyloid plaques (extracellular deposits found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer’s disease); similar plaques appear in some variants of Lewy body dementia and in inclusion body myositis (a muscle disease); also form the aggregates that coat cerebral blood vessels in cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

BB 153 ATP / Adenosine Triphosphate
Transports chemical energy within cells for metabolism; one of the end products of photophosphorylation, cellular respiration, and fermentation and used by enzymes and structural proteins in many cellular processes, including biosynthetic reactions, motility, and cell division.

BB 154 Catechol-O-Methyl-Transferase/COMT
One of several enzymes that inactivate dopamine, epinephrine, and norepinephrine. Also shortens the biological half-lives of certain neuro-active drugs, like L-DOPA, alpha-methyl DOPA and isoproterenol.

BB 155 Glutathione Reductase
Plays an important role in protecting haemoglobin, red cell enzymes, and biological cell membranes against oxidative damage by increasing the level of reduced glutathone (GSSGR) in the process of aerobic glycolysis; can act as a scavenger for hydroxyl radicals, singlet oxygen, and various electrophiles.

BB 156 Hydrogen Peroxide
Trace quantities released from immune cells (e.g. neutrophils and monocytes) as they come into contact with different bacteria or fungi.

BB 157 Intrinsic Factor Gastric Intrinsic Factor / GIF
Produced by the parietal cells of the stomach; necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12 (cobalamin) later on in the small intestine.

BB 158 L-Dopa
Made and used as part of the normal biology; the precursor to the neurotransmitters dopamine, norepinephrine and epinephrine. As a drug it is used in the clinical treatment of Parkinson’s disease and dopamine-responsive dystonia.

BB 159 Lipoprotein High-Density / HDL
Enable the transportation of lipids, such as cholesterol and triglycerides, within the water around cells, including the bloodstream. Remove fats, including cholesterol, from cells, including within artery wall atheroma and transport it back to the liver for excretion or re-utilization. Often informally called good cholesterol.

BB 160 Lipoprotein Lipase
Enzyme produced by many tissues, including adipose tissue, cardiac and skeletal muscle, islets, and macrophages; hydrolyses triglycerides in lipoproteins, such as those found in chylomicrons and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), into two free fatty acids and one monoacylglycerol molecule; also involved in promoting the cellular uptake of chylomicron remnants, cholesterol-rich lipoproteins, and free fatty acids; contributes in a pronounced way to normal lipoprotein metabolism and many aspects of metabolism, including energy balance, insulin action, body weight regulation, and atherosclerosis.

BB 161 Lipoprotein Low-Density / LDL
Enable transport of multiple different fat molecules, as well as cholesterol, within the water around cells and within the water-based bloodstream. Transport cholesterol into the artery wall, retained there by arterial proteoglycans and attract macrophages that engulf the LDL particles and start the formation of plaques; increased levels are associated with atherosclerosis. Often informally called bad cholesterol.

BB 162 Lipoprotein Very Low-Density / VLDL
Made by the liver; enable fats and cholesterol to move within the water-based solution of the bloodstream. VLDL is assembled in the liver from triglycerides, cholesterol, and apolipoproteins. VLDL is converted in the bloodstream to low-density lipoprotein.

BB 163 Motilin
Hormone produced from endocrine cells of the duodenal mucosa to help regulate motility of the digestive tract. Called “housekeeper of the gut” because it improves peristalsis in the small intestine and clears out the gut to prepare for the next meal.

BB 164 Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide / NAD
The coenzyme form of the vitamin niacin; found in all living cells; has a crucial roles in many cellular processes, both as a coenzyme for redox reactions and as a substrate to donate ADP-ribose units; involved in age-associated diseases, including diabetes, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases.

BB 165 Nitric Oxide
Serves as a neurotransmitter between nerve cells, part of its general role in redox signalling (helping cells protect themselves, detect damage and then either repair or replace damaged cells). Also of critical importance as a mediator of vasodilation in blood vessels, so playing a key role in renal control of extracellular fluid homeostasis, the regulation of blood flow and blood pressure, and in erection of the penis.

BB 166 Pancreatic Polypeptide
Secreted by the pancreas to regulate pancreatic secretion activities (endocrine and exocrine); also has effects on hepatic glycogen levels and gastrointestinal secretions; secretion is stimulated by eating, exercising, and fasting; can inhibit gallbladder contraction; elevated in anorexia nervosa and reduced in conditions associated with increased food intake.

BB 167 Peroxynitrite / Peroxonitrite
Produced in the body in inflammation, cardiovascular disease, neurodegeneration, diabetes, and other pathologies.

BB 168 Plasmin
Enzyme present in blood that degrades many blood plasma proteins, most notably, fibrin clots; activates collagenases, some mediators of the complement system and weakens the wall of the Graafian follicle (leading to ovulation).

BB 169 Plasminogen
The inactive enzyme precursor of plasmin.

BB 170 Proline
A non-essential amino acid; involved in tissue repair, collagen formation, arteriosclerosis prevention and blood pressure maintenance.

BB 171 Quinolinic Acid /2,3-Pyridinedicarboxylic Acid
A downstream product of the kynurenine pathway which metabolizes the amino acid tryptophan; implicated in mood disorders, schizophrenia, conditions related to neuronal death, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, brain ischemia, HIV associated neurocognitive disorder, Huntington’s disease, Parkinson’s disease and Lyme disease with CNS involvement.

BB 172 Thrombopoietin / Megakaryocyte Growth And Development Factor
A glycoprotein hormone produced by the liver and kidney which regulates the production of platelets; stimulates the production and differentiation of megakaryocytes, the bone marrow cells that bud off large numbers of platelets.

BB 173 Tissue Plasminogen Activator
A protein involved in the breakdown of blood clots; as an enzyme, it catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin. Used in clinical medicine to treat only embolic or thrombotic stroke. Use is contra-indicated in hemorrhagic stroke and head trauma.

BB 174 Triglycerides
A blood lipid that help enable the bidirectional transference of adipose fat and blood glucose from the liver. High levels of triglycerides in the bloodstream have been linked to atherosclerosis and, by extension, the risk of heart disease and stroke.

BB 175 Vasoactive Intestinal Peptide
Produced in many tissues including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in the brain; stimulates contractility in the heart, causes vasodilation, increases breakdown of glucose, lowers arterial blood pressure and relaxes the smooth muscle of trachea, stomach and gall bladder. as a white blood cell growth factor. Stimulates stem cells to produce granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils) and monocytes.