are substances that are normally produced by leukocytes (white blood
cells) and other cells in the body and help the immune system fight
infection and cancer.
IL 01 Interleukin-1
Stimulates the growth and action of immune system cells that fight
disease, by participating in the regulation of immune responses, inflammatory
reactions, and hematopoiesis (development of mature blood cells).
Also helps leukocytes pass through blood vessel walls to sites of
infection and causes fever by affecting areas of the brain that control
IL 02 Interleukin-2
Induces the proliferation of responsive T-cells, and acts on some
B-cells, via receptor-specific binding, as a growth factor and antibody
production stimulant. Linked to pruritus (itching).
IL 03 Interleukin-3
Regulates blood-cell production by controlling the production, differentiation
and function of granulocytes and macrophages, so enhances the immune
system's ability to fight tumor cells.
IL 04 Interleukin-4
Enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells; has an
important function in B-cell responses. A key regulator in humoral
and adaptive immunity.
IL 05 Interleukin-5
/ Eosinophil Differentiation Factor/ EDF
Regulates eosinophil growth and activation, and thus plays an important
role in diseases associated with increased levels of eosinophils,
including asthma and allergic rhinitis.
IL 06 Interleukin-6
/ B-Cell Stimulatory Factor-2 /BSF-2
A biomarker for inflammation and chronic disease. Plays an essential
role in the final differentiation of B-cells into IG-secreting cells,
as well as inducing myeloma/plasmacytoma growth, nerve cell differentiation,
and, in hepatocytes, acute-phase reactants. Involved in diabetes,
atherosclerosis, depression Alzheimer's disease, systemic lupus erythematosus,
prostate cancer and rheumatoid arthritis.
IL 07 Interleukin-7
Enhances the immune system's ability to fight tumor cells. IL-7 is
made by cells in the bone marrow, and can stimulate T cells and B
cells to grow. Promotes acute lymphoblastic leukemia, T cell lymphoma.
Elevated levels of IL-7 have also been detected in the plasma of HIV-infected
IL 08 Interleukin-8
/ Neutrophil Chemotactic Factor
Induces chemotaxis in target cells, primarily neutrophils but also
other granulocytes, causing them to migrate toward the site of infection.
Also induces phagocytosis once they have arrived. Known to be a potent
promoter of angiogenesis (growth of new blood vessels from existing
ones, and necessary for tumours to grow). Often associated with inflammation
(e.g. in gingivitis and psoriasis). If a pregnant mother has high
levels, there is an increased risk of schizophrenia in her offspring.
High levels have also been shown to reduce the likelihood of positive
responses to antipsychotic medication in schizophrenia.
IL 09 Interleukin-9
Serves as a growth factor for early lymphoid cells of both B- and
T-cell lineages. supports IL-2 independent and IL-4 independent growth
of helper T-cells.
IL 10 Interleukin-10
/ Human Cytokine Synthesis Inhibitory Factor/ CSIF
Inhibits the synthesis of a number of cytokines, including IFN-gamma,
IL-2, IL-3, TNF, and GM-CSF produced by activated macrophages and
by helper T cells. Mice studies suggest it is an essential immuno-regulator
in the intestinal tract.; may be relevant in Crohn's disease.
IL 11 Interleukin-11
/ Adipogenesis Inhibitory Factor / AGIF
Stimulates megakaryocytopoiesis, resulting in increased production
of platelets, as well as activating osteoclasts, inhibiting epithelial
cell proliferation and apoptosis, and inhibiting macrophage mediator
production. May reduce toxicity to the gastrointestinal system resulting
from cancer therapy.
IL 12 Interleukin-12
Enhances the ability of the immune system to kill tumor cells and
may interfere with blood flow to the tumor. involved in the stimulation
and maintenance of Th1 cellular immune responses, including the normal
host defence against various intracellular pathogens, such as Leishmania,
Toxoplasma, Measles virus, and HIV. Also has an important role in
pathological Th1 responses, such as in inflammatory bowel disease
and multiple sclerosis. Administration of IL-12 to people suffering
from autoimmune diseases was shown to worsen the autoimmune phenomena.
This is believed to be due to its key role in induction of Th1 immune
IL 17A Interleukin-
Acts as a potent mediator in delayed-type reactions by increasing
chemokine production in various tissues to recruit monocytes and neutrophils
to the site of inflammation, similar to Interferon gamma. Has been
shown to have a pro-inflammatory role in asthma.
IL 23 Interleukin-23
Potently enhances the expansion of T helper type 17 cells, so involved
in many of the inflammatory autoimmune responses.